1. Received data from EPA Green Power Partnership on 4 August 2020.
2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Energy Use in Commercial Buildings, accessed 19 December 2018, archived at link; Leia Guccione and Laurie Stone, “Higher education’s energy lessons: Why universities and colleges are big believers in campus microgrids” (blog post), Rocky Mountain Institute, 31 October 2013, archived at link; Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, How Do Campus Sustainability Initiatives Affect College Admissions?, 2 March 2009, archived at link.
3. Second Nature, Reporting Platform (online database), accessed at link, 24 July 2020.
4. Princeton Review, 2020 College Hopes & Worries Survey Report, downloaded 24 July 2020, available at link.
5. National Grid, Managing Energy Costs in Colleges and Universities, 2003, available at link.
6. This ranking and the clean vehicle ranking are based on schools’ reports to AASHE STARS from 2017 through 2019. See Methodology for full details.
7. Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education’s, Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System, Chatham University OP-6: Clean and Renewable Energy, 26 November 2018, archived at link.
8. Environmental Protection Agency, Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions, accessed 10 February 2020, archived at link.
9. EVs in this ranking include battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles.
10. Brown University, Departmental Sustainability Program Overview, accessed on 19 February 2020, archived at link.
11. Alexandra Valnoski, “Vanderbilt outlines major plans to reduce environmental footprint,” Vanderbilt News, 22 April 2019, archived at link.
12. Vanderbilt University, On-Site Energy, accessed on 5 February 2020, archived at link.
13. Katherine Keith, “Vanderbilt commits to first-of-its-kind renewable energy partnership with TVA, NES,” Vanderbilt News, 22 January 2020, archived at link.
14. UA News, UArizona and TEP Given Green Light for 100% Clean Energy Agreement, 10 December 2019, archived at link.
16. University of Hawai’i, New Law Sets Net-zero Energy Goal for UH, 8 June 2015, archived at link.
17. University of Hawai’i News, 1 MW of Renewable Energy Goes Online at UH Manoa, 4 October 2019, archived at link.
18. One hundred percent clean electricity: Robyn Schelenz, “UC makes bold commitment to 100 percent clean electricity,” University of California, 29 October 2018, archived at link; carbon neutrality: University of California, Carbon Neutrality Initiative, accessed 13 February 2019, archived at link.
19. University of California, Policy on Sustainable Practices, 24 July 2019, 9, available at link.